The rise of digital platforms has changed how, when and where consumers communicate with each other (consumer-to- consumer, C2C) and with firms (consumer-to-business, C2B). Word-of-mouth (WOM) behavior has evolved in the digital age. Complaints and compliments are no longer just words. C2B and C2C Marketing communication is increasingly played out in other media and in view of others. An updated typology of complaint channels is proposed. 

The rise of incentivized and solicited C2B and C2C communication creates new challenges to both consumers and marketers. This paper provides unambiguous definitions that encompass the various types of communication methods, motives and channels.

Author Biography

Gillian S Naylor, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Editor, JCSDCB

Associate Professor

Department of Marketing and International Business


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