A More Personalized Satisfaction Model: Including the BFI-44 in the American Customer Satisfaction Model.


  • Elizabeth Crisp Crawford North Dakota State University


This study extends current research on customer satisfaction and the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) by incorporating personality into the American Customer Satisfaction Model (ACSM).  Survey responses including basic demographic information, major choice, the ACSM, and BFI-44 were collected from 849 students from various colleges and universities across the United States. The research revealed that the BFI-44 can be reliably incorporated into the ACSM. Additionally, the inclusion of BFI personality traits substantially altered satisfaction rankings and comparisons that the students made relating to their choice of undergraduate major, a high-involvement product. The findings show that excluding personality from customer satisfaction data could result in inaccurate information relating to customers’ true satisfaction levels. 

Author Biography

Elizabeth Crisp Crawford, North Dakota State University

Associate Professor of Communication North Dakota State University Ph.D. University of Tennessee (2007)



Agarwal, R., Mehrotra, A., & Barger, V. A. (2016). Personality traits and repatronage intentions after service failure. Journal of consumer satisfaction, dissatisfaction, and complaining behavior, 29, 31-51.

Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Rust, R.T. (1997). Customer satisfaction, productivity, and profitability: Differences between goods and services, Marketing Science, 16 (2), 129-145. doi: 10.1287/mksc.16.2.129

Anderson, E. W. & Fornell, C. (2000). Foundations of the American Customer Satisfaction Index, Total Quality Management, 11(7), 869-882. doi: 10.1080/09544120050135425

Argyle, M., & Lu, L. (1990). The happiness of extraverts. Personality and individual differences, 11(10), 1011-1017. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(90)90128-E

Barkhi, R. & Wallace, L. (2007). The impact of personality type on
purchasing decisions in virtual stores. Information Technology and Management, 8(4), 313-330. doi: 10.1007/s10799-007-0021-y

Bloemer, J. M., & Kasper, H. D. (1995). The complex relationship between consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty. Journal of Economic Psychology, 16(2), 311-329. doi: 10.1016/0167-4870(95)00007-B

Brody, R. P., & Cunningham, S. M. (1968). Personality variables and the consumer decision process. Journal of Marketing Research, 50-57.

Dahl, A., & Peltier, J. (2015). A historical review and future research agenda for the field of customer satisfaction, dissatisfaction, & complaining behavior. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction & Complaining Behavior, 28(4), pp. 4-23.

Ekinci, Y., & Dawes, P. L. (2009). Consumer perceptions of frontline service employee personality traits, interaction quality, and consumer satisfaction. The Service Industries Journal, 29(4), 503-521. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02642060802283113

Fornell, C., Johnson, M. D., Anderson, E. W., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. E. (1996). The American customer satisfaction index: nature, purpose, and findings. The Journal of Marketing, 7-18. doi:10.2307/1251898

Fornell, C., & Wernerfelt, B. (1988). A Model for Customer Complaint Management. Marketing Science, 7(3), 287–298. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/183718

Furnham, A., & Cheng, H. (1997). Personality and happiness. Psychological Reports, 80(3), 761-762. doi: https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1997.80.3.761

Gordon, M. E., McKeage, K., & Fox, M. A. (1998). Relationship marketing effectiveness: the role of involvement. Psychology and Marketing, 15(5), 443-459. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199808)15:5%3C443::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-7

Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 504-528. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1

Gountas, J., & Gountas, S. (2007). Personality orientations, emotional states, customer satisfaction, and intention to repurchase. Journal of Business Research, 60(1), 72-75. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.08.007

Haugtvedt, C. P., Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1992). Need for cognition and advertising: Understanding the role of personality variables in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1(3), 239-260. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1057-7408(08)80038-1

Hayes, N., & Joseph, S. (2003). Big 5 correlates of three measures of subjective well-being. Personality and Individual differences, 34(4), 723-727. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00057-0

Hennig-Thurau, T. (2004). Customer orientation of service employees: Its impact on customer satisfaction, commitment, and retention. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5), 460-478. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09564230410564939

Hirsh, J. B., & Dolderman, D. (2007). Personality predictors of consumerism and environmentalism: A preliminary study. Personality and individual differences, 43(6), 1583-1593. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.04.015

Hirsh, J. B., Kang, S. K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2012). Personalized persuasion tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients’ personality traits. Psychological Science, 23(6), 578-581. doi:10.1177/0956797611436349

Jackson, J., Crawford, E.C. & Pritchard, A. (2017). Personality traits and student satisfaction with major. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Jani, D., & Han, H. (2014). Personality, satisfaction, image, ambience, and loyalty: Testing their relationships in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 37, 11-20. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.10.007

Jensen-Campbell, L. A. & Graziano, W. G. (2001). Agreeableness as a Moderator of Interpersonal Conflict. Journal of Personality, 69, 323–362. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00148

John, O. P., & Naumann, L.P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Conceptual Issues. In John, Robins, & Pervin (Eds.). Handbook of personality: Theory and research, New York: Guilford Press.

John, O. P., & Strivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In Pervin & John (Eds.). Handbook of personality: Theory and research, Vol. 2. New York: Guilford Press.

Klie, L. (2015). Slumping customer satisfaction taking a toll on the economy. CRM Magazine, Retrieved from http://www.destinationcrm.com/Articles/ReadArticle.aspx?ArticleID=107808&tc=eml.

Luo, X. & Homburg, C. (2007). Neglected Outcomes of Customer Satisfaction. Journal of Marketing, 71(2), 133-149. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.71.2.133

Luo, X., Homburg, C. & Wieseke, J. (2010). Customer satisfaction, analyst stock recommendations, and firm value. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(6), 1041-1058. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.47.6.1041

Matzler, K., Faullant, R., Renzl, B and Leiter, V. (2005). The relationship between personality traits (extraversionand neuroticism), emotions and customer self-satisfaction.
Innovative Marketing, 1(2), 32-39.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81. doi:

Mittal, B. (1989). Measuring purchase?decision involvement. Psychology & Marketing, 6(2), 147-162.

Mooradian, T. A. & Olver, J. M. (1997), “I can't get no satisfaction:” The impact of personality and emotion on postpurchase processes. Psychology & Marketing, 14(4), 379–393. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199707)14:4<379::AID-MAR5>3.0.CO;2-6

Reichheld, F.F. & Sasser, Jr., W.E. (1990). Zero defections. Quality comes to services. Harvard Business Review, 68(5), 105-111.

Reichheld, F F, & Teal, T. (1996). The loyalty effect. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Stein, L. (2015). RIP millennials: Marketing will be 'age agnostic' next year: Hotwire PR study finds companies will target on passion, not numbers. AdvertisingAge, Retrieved from http://adage.com/article/agency-news/2016-means-death-targeted-millennial-marketing/301380/?utm_campaign=SocialFlow&utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=Social

Sun, K. A., & Kim, D. Y. (2013). Does customer satisfaction increase firm performance? An application of American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, 68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.05.008

Park, D. H., Lee, J., & Han, I. (2007). The effect of on-line consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 11(4), 125-148. doi: 10.2753/JEC1086-4415110405

Tan, H. H., Foo, M. D., & Kwek, M. H. (2004). The Effects of Customer Personality Traits on the Display of Positive Emotions. The Academy of Management Journal, 47(2), 287–296. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20159579

Taylor, R. E. (1999). A six-segment message strategy wheel. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(6), 7-18.

Vaughn, R. (1980). How advertising works: A planning model. Journal of Advertising Research, 20(5), 27-33.

Vaughn, R. (1986). How advertising works: A planning model revisited." Journal of Advertising Research 26(1), 57-66.

Wedel, M. & Kamakura, W.A. (1998). Marketing segmentation: Conceptual and methodological foundations, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Widhiarso, W. (2011). Typology of ideal personality: Applicant perspective in job selection setting. Proceedings of The 1st International Conference on Information Systems For
Business Competitiveness (ICISBC).

Wolburg, J., & Pokrywczynski, J. (2001). A psychographic analysis of Generation Y college students. Journal of Advertising Research, 41(5), 33-52. doi: 10.2501/JAR-41-5-33-52

Yi, Y. & La, S. (2004). What influences the relationship between customer satisfaction and repurchase intention? Investigating the effects of adjusted expectations and customer loyalty. Psychology & Marketing, 21(5), 351–373. doi: 10.1002/mar.20009

Yi, Y., & Jeon, H. (2003). Effects of loyalty programs on value perception, program loyalty, and brand loyalty. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3), 229-240. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0092070303031003002





Journal Articles