Word of Mouth: What We Know and What We Have Yet to Learn


  • Bodo Lang University of Auckland Business School
  • Kenneth F. Hyde AUT University


One of the key consequences of customer satisfaction is word of mouth communication (WOM). WOM is a concept that has attracted sustained research attention. To confirm what we already know about this important construct, this article reviews and synthesizes 60 years of WOM literature and develops a parsimonious model of WOM’s most important antecedents and consequences, and outlines some approaches to its management. The authors identify three key antecedents of WOM and a large number of affective, cognitive, and behavioral consequences are also identified, illustrating WOM’s farreaching effects. Three generic approaches to utilizing WOM are identified and illustrated. Lastly, 14 research questions pertaining to WOM’s antecedents, its consequences, and its management are outlined to guide future research with the aim of developing a better understanding of this important construct



— Updated on 2022-02-02