Observer Retaliation: Apology Components Affect on Observing Customers’ Reactions

  • Todd A McClure University of Central Missouri
  • Virginia Killian
  • John Pearson
Keywords: Apology Components, Observing customer, Service recovery, Uncivil Behavior


The purpose of this paper is to investigate how observing customers’ react after witnessing an apology containing four unique components. The present research examines the influence of apology characteristics on observing customers’ negative word-of-mouth and return intentions. Four apology components (timeliness, accepting responsibility, initiation, and remorse) were examined.

Journal Articles