Extending the Hirschman Model: When Voice and Exit Don't Tell the Whole Story
Hirschman established the terms exit, voice, and loyalty as associated with consumer dissatisfaction. We propose that exit and voice need clarification and that Hirschman's meaning of loyalty differs from most readers' meaning of loyalty. We also propose that retaliation, grudgeholding, avoidance, and loyalty are useful in representing and explaining consumers stories of responses to dissatisfaction and satisfaction.
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