Compensatory Satisfaction: An Ethnography of Avoiding Disappointment and Producing Satisfaction in Birding


  • John E. Swan University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • Warren S. Martin University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • I. Fredrick Trawick University of Alabama at Birmingham


Seeking satisfaction and enjoyment is a fundamental motivation in many leisure/recreational activities. Seeking compensatory satisfaction involves avoiding disappointment when expectations are disconfirmed by actively seeking alternatives to what one hoped or expected. The disconfirmation paradigm has received much attention, however the possibility of compensatory satisfaction has not been explicitly treated in the literature. The purpose of this study is to present the concept of compensatory satisfaction and how consumers who find that their primary objectives are not being obtained still obtain satisfaction. The theme of this article is that in leisure pursuits, when primary objectives are blocked, satisfaction is sought and experienced by engaging in substitute activities. In the context of birding, experiencing compensatory satisfaction is analyzed.



— Updated on 2022-03-01


  • 2022-03-01 (2)
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